Content-based instruction Wikipedia

Or students need to be kept from enrolling in CBI courses until they are ready. In my opinion, I would suggest that teachers need to design a lesson that is intriguing and appealing enough to encourage students to participate in the lesson. Moreover, teachers must know how to shelter the content to make it accessible to students. Students are hypothesized to become autonomous and independent in CBI, so that they are conscious of their own learning process and can take charge of their learning. Furthermore, students are expected to support each other in collaborative modes of learning.

The goal of CBI is to prepare students to acquire the language while using the context of any subject matter so that students learn the language by using it within that specific context. Rather than learning a language out of context, it is learned within the context of a specific academic subject. Content-based learning is an effective method for language instruction.

CALL Principles and Practices

By using specific academic content to learn a language, CBI allows learners to acquire academic language proficiency while learning the language. CBI seeks to provide learners with a more meaningful and authentic language learning experience by immersing them in a subject matter that interests them. Content-based instruction lends itself naturally to cooperative learning activities. Students can work in groups to brainstorm ideas about the topic at hand or prepare group projects or presentations related to the topic. Shaw suggests using jigsaw-reading techniques in which sets of readings are assigned to pairs of students who then report on the content to their classmates. Such activities provide opportunities for students to develop speaking ability and to solidify their understanding of linguistic structures as they “negotiate meaning” in the language.

  • She feels that what she learned will help her to teach content and language more effectively for her seventh graders, some of whom are English language learners.
  • As a result, an adjunct program is usually limited to cases where students have language skills that are sufficiently advanced to enable them to participate in content instruction with native speakers.
  • Stoller and Grabe use the term “theme-based instruction” as a synonym for content-based instruction in general, claiming that “all CBI is fundamentally theme-based” (p. 81).
  • In the fictional conversation vignette, Jeffery has high BICS English level; however, he needs strong CALP English to assist him to be academically successful in school performance.
  • The sheltered content instruction model, or structured immersion, involves teaching grade-level subject matter in the language of study.

In the cognitive stage, learners notice and attend to information in working memory, and they gradually develop a rough mental presentation of task requirements. In the associative stage, learners refine and strengthen this representation but still consciously attend to rules and sometimes need outside support when performing the task. Finally, in the autonomous stage, the task representation is increasingly refined, and learners are now able to perform the task automatically and autonomously.

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This is not to say that there is never an emphasis on the language itself in CBI; on the contrary, CBI at its best integrates a focus on language in the context of content instruction. It has a “dual commitment to language- and content-learning objectives” (Stoller, 2004, p. 261). Content-based instruction is based on the rationale that “people learn a second language more successfully when they use the language as a means of acquiring information, rather than as an end in itself” (Richards & Rodgers, 2001, p. 207). Indeed, Krashen claims that “comprehensible subject-matter teaching islanguage teaching” (p. 62).

content based instruction models

The goal is to assist learners in developing general academic language skills through interesting and relevant content. Theme-based language instruction is the most widespread of the three content-based models because it can be implemented within virtually any existing institutional setting, and the theme or the topic can be selected to match students’ interests. The purpose of CBI is to increase student immersion, engagement, and motivation.

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CBI is often contrasted with more traditional language teaching approaches that focus primarily on grammar and vocabulary instruction. Content-based instruction is a teaching approach that focuses on learning a language through learning about something. Although CBI is not new, there has been an increased interest in it because it has proven to be very effective in ESL and EFL classes around the world.

Teaching and learning through content is fun and worthwhile for not only teachers but learners. Although it takes more time to plan and create materials for CBI, and issues such as learner readiness, teacher knowledge, and the balance between language and content should be taken into consideration, the results will be rewarding. Language teachers must be knowledgeable in content areas and be able to elicit knowledge from students. Traditionally, language instruction focuses on language forms; that is, learners know what to say and how to say it in various situations along with basic reading and writing skills.

Advantages and disadvantages of content-based instruction

Learning to learn emphasizes the significant role that learning strategies play in the process of learning. There is no single formula for this type of instruction but there are certain models of CBI which are used worldwide to achieve a holistic and global approach to foreign language learning. In essence, CBI implies integration of language learning and content learning. Hence, in a CBI course the focus of learning is not on learning of a language in isolation, but rather learning of language through the study of subject matter. A CBI curriculum is based on a subject matter core, uses authentic language and texts, and is guided by learner needs.

content based instruction models

Such a program requires a large amount of coordination between the language and content teachers, and usually language teachers make the extra efforts to become familiar with the content. In order to ensure that the two curricula are interlocking, modifications to both courses may be required. The rationale behind this model is that the linked courses will assist students in developing academic coping strategies and cognitive skills that will transfer from one discipline to another (Brinton et al., 1989).

I. Principles of CALL

It is geared toward higher-level students (typically university-aged) with a well-developed language background. The goal of the adjunct language model of instruction is to move past grammatical or conversational skills to develop academic competence. Typically, academic classes are paired with a language course which helps students to integrate language learning, study skills, and classroom culture in a new country. Sheltered instruction is more of a teacher-driven approach that puts the responsibility on the teachers’ shoulders. Learning to learn is more of a student-centered approach that stresses the importance of having the learners share this responsibility with their teachers.

This means that the curriculum is based on a certain subject matter and communicative competence is acquired in the context of learning about certain topics in that subject area. This falls under the top down approach to language learning where, unlike the bottom up approach, a learner first learns the overall meaning of a text and then attends to the language features. Materials in theme-based language instruction are usually teacher-generated or adapted from outside sources. An attempt is often made to integrate the topic into the teaching of all skills (Brinton et al., 1989).

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Each section includes reflection questions designed to guide readers to consider how best to implement CBI in their course and program. Stryker and Leaver state that there may be a challenge for learners to participate in CBI courses. Learners are expected to be active in different roles and cooperative with each other. This is an issue for students who are accustomed to whole-class, independent, and traditional learning and teaching models. Additionally, learners need to possess a minimum level of language proficiency so that they can understand the quantity of new information in CBI courses. Stryker and Leaver suggest that students need to be prepared both psychologically and cognitively for CBI, and if they are not adequately prepared, then teachers should offer the missing schemata needs for students.






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